Waste Reception Facilities in Cruise Ports: The case of the Med

With cruise activities in the Mediterranean and its adjoining seas increasing, the cruise world takes initiatives to handle the produced externalities, including the wastes produced on cruise ships. In recent times, cruise lines and ports have put a lot of efforts into reducing, selecting and managing generated wastes implementing the requirements of the international regulatory framework (MARPOL 73/78) as well as those imposed by the European legislation.

Thanos Pallis and Aimilia Papachristou in their latest port study that was presented at the 5th International Symposium on Ship Operations, Management & Economics (SOME 2015) held in Athens, Greece, 28-29 May 2015, surveyed the extent that the current practices of cruise ports in the Mediterranean region have achieved a satisfactory level of compliance. It does so via a survey that maps the existing conditions and port based practices in approximately 50 cruise ports in the region. The study concludes on the kind of facilities, technologies and services that are present at Mediterranean cruise ports. Beyond the empirical knowledge the study provides practical implications on what further can be done so as to secure a sustainable cruise future.

The paper has benefited by the work in the context of the EU funded project "Sustainable Cruise Project", a LIFE+ project (LIFE 10 ENV/IT/367). More information about the "Sustainable Cruise Project" is available at http://www.sustainablecruise.eu

You may freely dowload Thanos' and Aimilia's paper @PortEconomics.eu: 


Meet PortEconomics @ESPO Conference 2015

PortEconomics members get together in Athens (21-22 May) to take an active participation at the 12th edition of the annual conference ‬of the European Sea Port Organisation (ESPO), the association representing port authorities throughout Europe.

While they will be involved in conference discussions, you might also visit PORTOPIA stand, where PortEconomics members and research partners will present the latest advancements in port performance measurements.

Join PortEconomics members in Athens, to discuss the best ways meet your needs and advance research in port economics, management and policy.

For one more year, PortEconomics will cover the discussions, with a diary reporting directly all that happen during the conference - stay tuned !!


Top-10 cruise ports in the Med

Which are the top-10 cruise ports in the Meditteranean and its adjoining seas? PortEconomics co-director Thanos Palllis compiled the list of the 10 largest cruise ports in terms of passenger movements in 2014, and compared these figures to the years 2013 and 2010, in a single picture, with PortEconomics provides this information to its readers.

The data were collected in the context of a statistical report prepared for MedCruise (the association of ports in the Med and its adjoining seas), with Thanos Pallis, along with fellow researchers Kleopatra Arapi and Aimilia Papachristou commenting on the trends:

Top-10 cruise ports in the Med

The ten major ports hosted 14.059.114 annual cruise passenger movements in 2014. This is 9% more when comparing to the passengers that they had hosted five years before, but a 6,5% decline when comparing to the record year 2013. The picture for the individual ports that are included in the specific major-10 list is mixed, as four of these ports recorded a growth of cruise passengers in 2014. 

The major four ports in terms of passenger movements retained their ranking for another year. Barcelona remains the top port in the Mediterranean Sea. Hosting 2,36 million passenger movements in 2014 Barcelona's traffic remains returned 0,6% higher than the levels of 2010. Civitavecchia is the other cruise port in the Med that hosted more than two million cruise passenger movements in 2014, with the 2010-2014 variation registering a sizeable growth of 10% (from 1,94 millions to 2,35 millions).

Venice stands as the third major cruise port in terms of total passenger movements. Comparing to the respective number of movements in 2010, Venice recorded a growth of 7,2% within this five years period. As the city experienced a heated discussion on restrictions on the sailing of big in size cruise vessels down the Giudecca canal, it is worth monitoring the long-term effect that related decisions might have on the specific port and not least on the broader region of the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea. The fourth biggest port in the Med is Balearic Islands, which the last two years has seen the annual cruise passenger movements standing at over 1,5 million per annum. The 3% annual growth of 2014 has brought these movements to a level that is 2,6% higher than in 2010.

Marseille continues to register the most dynamic growth of all MedCruise ports for a second successive year. As a result, it endures rising the rankings of major ports. At the end of 2014, following a 10,4% annual growth, it stands at the 5th position of this ranking. The growth of 2014 followed a remarkable 33% rise of passenger movements within 2013. The port remains the most dynamic of all even when one compares the medium-term trends. The period 2010-2014 cruise passenger traffic growth in Marseille equals to an 88%.

Savona, which in 2013 was the new entry in the major-10 ports list, continued to grow and consequently rise in the rankings in 2014. Following an 8,5% annual rise of the number of passengers hosted, this port surpassed the one million passenger movements per year milestone. Within a five years period (2010-2014) passenger movements at the port increased by 30,5% and Savona stands now as the 8th biggest port in the Med and its adjoining seas.

The fourth port member that saw the numbers of cruise passenger movements rising in 2014 is Tenerife. Hosting 840.268 passenger movements, a rise of 5,8% comparing to the previous year and 13,5% comparing to 2010, Tenerife now concludes the list of the top-10 ports in the Med at the expense of Genoa, with the latter losing ground to the neighbouring port of Savona. Naples, Piraeus and Dubrovnik are the other ports in the list.


Cruise activities in Med ports


33PortEconomics members Thanos Pallis and Aimilia Papachristou, co-author the report "Cruise activities in MedCruise ports: Statistics 2013", that was presented in Cruise Shipping Miami 2014.

This report prepared jointly with Kleopatra Arapi, forms a useful reference tool for the entire cruise industry, by providing a statistical analysis of cruise activities in the Mediterranean region and its adjoining seas for 2013 - including information on market concentration - comparing the data with the immediate previous year and presenting an analysis of developments in the region during the last five years.

Τhe report explores the size and evolution of this market over the last year, the trends that the region experienced in the recent past. Beyond the presentation of the data per port, the report contains an analysis of the data per region, examining in detail what happened in West Med, the Adriatic, East Med and the Black Sea. It also contains an analysis per size of the port, information about seasonality of activities, detailed information of major variations from previous years and reports on market concentration. ;



DEVPORT Conference: Strategies to increase sustainable competitiveness in ports & maritime logistics


The final programme of the international DEVPORT Conference on strategies to increase sustainable competitiveness in ports & maritime logistics is now available. The Conference will take place on Thursday 12th and Friday 13th June 2014 at the University of Le Havre.

This scientific event aims to bring together researchers and professionals for two days of exchanges, in order to compare different disciplinary approaches to maritime et port questions, and to draw up an inventory of the researches in a prospecting way. This conference is included in the DEVPORT project, which brings together researchers from different research centers and universities.

During the conference, members of the PortEconomics team will present the following papers:

  • Spatial pattern and complexity of the global shipping network (by Chengjin Wang & César Ducruet
  • Incentive Approaches to Port Concession Agreements (Athanasios A. Pallis et Grace Wang)
  • Waste reception facilities in Cruise Ports: The case of the Med» (by Athanasios A. Pallis & Aimilia A. Papachristou)
  • The role of seaport-based logistic platforms in the automotive supply chain: Some evidence from the Lower Seine Region (France) (by David Guerrero, Adolf K.Y.Ng & Jérôme Verny)

The aim of this conference is to compare different disciplinary approaches in the following topics:

  1. The first concerns the adaptation of maritime, port and logistics operators to hazards of globalization including strategies of maritime shipping lines, port planning and development, supply chain development. They are part of research fields on which researchers have already significant experience capitalized.
  2. The second axis is to analyze a number of port models identifiable in foreign contexts and compare them to the particular case of "The Seine Corridor"(Le Havre, Rouen, Paris) or "Seine Axis". The ultimate goal is to find the best operating conditions of a regional port system, associated to a global metropolis.
  3. Innovations in transport have facilitated the development of flexible production and distribution systems both locally and globally as well as the emergence of an increasingly specialized and globalized economy.

The Conference is organised by the interdisciplinary center on mobility of the University of Le Havre (CIRTAI), associated to the CNRS within the mixed research unit «Identités et Différenciations de l'Espace, de l'Environnement et des Sociétés» (IDEES).

You can download the final conference programme @PortEconomics.eu



Port and Maritime Security: The European approach

Porteconomics member Aimilia Papachristou gave an invited presentation on the Conference entitled "Security at the EU Ports" that was held in the context of EU Projects "See Mariner" and "Support" by the Piraeus Port Authority.

During the first session of the conference Aimilia presented a research co-authored by PortEconomics co-director Thanos Pallis on the theme of "Port and Maritime Security: Τhe European approach".

The presentation covered the following three major topics:
1. The need for a maritime (trans)port security
2. Non-EU maritime security initiatives
3. The EU security policy

You may download the presentation @porteconomics.eu


Port Studies in MPM: Reviewing advances, discussing challenges, identifying research streams

Dares Salam-Hoffman-3With ports being a key component of modern tranportation system, there is a growing research interest  in port economics, management and policy issues. 

Maritime Policy & Management (MPM), the flagship journal of maritime studies, has been a publication that advanced the knowledge and understanding of ports since its inception in 1973.

With MPM celebrating its 40th anniversary, PortEconomics co-directors Theo Notteboom, Thanos Pallis and Peter de Langen, joined by PortEconomics member Aimilia Papachristou, have published a port study that provides an analysis of all port related scholarly papers published in Maritime Policy & Management (MPM) since its first issue.

The study examines 267 MPM papers, categorized in seven inter-related research themes providing for each category a content analysis including main research topics and methods, authorship distribution and the citation rate of the particular categories. The study concludes with a discussion on current challenges for port-related research as well as an identification of emerging and promising research streams.

The study is published in a special MPM, celebrating the 40 years of Maritime Policy and Management, edited by Wesley Wilson.

You might download the authors' version of the paper @ PortEconomics:



Maritime Policy and Management turns 40 and PortEconomics pays tribute to its contribution in advancing the study of port economics, management and policy:

Photo: Jan Hoffman



Can ILO Port Labour Conventions serve port labour reforms?

International labour standards have grown into a system of tools for effecting work and social policy, backed by a supervisory system designed to address a variety of problems at the national level. Historically, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has acted as the international organisation which develops a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. In today's globalized economy, international labour standards form a component of the international framework for the global economy. The port and maritime world could not remain unaffected. As the organizational systems of maritime transport and the working life of those employed in the sector changed, international conventions were agreed to and put forward for ratification by UN member countries, following ILO discussions.

PortEconomics co-director Thanos Pallis and member Aimilia Papachristou along with Nikolaos Farantouris from Piraeus University, Greece and Nefeli Katsafourou, Competition Authority, Hellenic Republic, Greece presented their latest research on "Reforming Port Labour: Challenges to the ratification of ILO Port Labour Conventions in Greece", during the annual conference of the International Association of Maritime Economists - IAME 2013, that was held in Marseilles, France.

This study examines the challenges faced by the Greek state in adjusting the rules governing its port labour system to present day conditions, and on whether the ILO Conventions serve contemporary needs. 

In particular it discusses the outcome of the social dialogue that took place in order to avoid social upheaval and ensure effective implementation of new measures. The gap analysis presented for the provisions of the national legislation and those included in the two ILO port Conventions;  “ILO Convention C137 on the Social Repercussions of New Methods of Cargo Handling in Docks” and “ILO Convention C152 on the Occupational Safety and Health in Dock Work”, concludes on the extent that the ratification of either Convention would facilitate labour reforms. 

You may freely download the paper and presentation @PortEconomics



PortEconomics highlights contribution of 40 years Maritime Policy & Management to port studies

The flagship journal Maritime Policy & Management celebrates its 40th anniversary this year. To celebrate this occasion, Chung Ang University in Seoul (host of the Journal) organized an academic conference inviting distinguished scholars to review past and future developments in shipping and port research.  PortEconomics could not miss the celebration, with members of the team invited to give knowledgeable insights of the contribution of the Journal.

PortEconomics team members Theo Notteboom, Thanos Pallis, Peter de Langen and Aimilia Papachristou developed a contribution on 'Advances in Port Studies: the contribution of 40 years Maritime Policy & Management".

MPMThe paper was presented at the event by Theo Notteboom while James Fawcett of the University of Southern Carolina acted as discussant. The contribution points to the ever more important role of port studies in MPM. In the past few years nearly half of all published papers are dealing with port-related issues while this figure was less than 10% in the 1970s. Also, MPM paved the way for a maturing process of port research with many seminal papers on topics such as port productivity, the role of port authorities, port-hinterland relationships and the role of ports in supply chains.

The paper in its final form will, together with five other papers presented at the 40th anniversary event, be published in a Special Anniversary Issue of MPM which will come out at the end of this year (guest editor: Wesley Wilson).

You may freely download Theo's presentation @PortEconomics.eu:

Also:  PortEconomics associate member Adolf Ng contributed to the event with a study on the evolution and trends of shipping research. Read more @ PortEconomics :


UNCTAD's study on utilizing FDI to improve ports

The UNCTAD study "How to utilize FDI to improve transport infrastructure - ports: Lessons from Nigeria" prepared by Thanos Pallis with inputs and assistance from PortEconomics member Aimilia Papachristou was released on January 31st in Geneva and New York.

Africa_-_APM_Terminal_Apapa_NigieraThe study draws lessons from the experience of Nigeria and its broad-based port reforms over the past decade. A rising number of developing countries have reformed governance models and introduced private investment and management in formerly State-dominated ports. Foreign direct investment in port infrastructure is an attractive policy option for many developing countries, although it is not without its challenges. The challenges should not be underestimated, and include, among others, establishing the necessary legal and institutional framework, restructuring port entities, managing the bidding process, negotiating with international terminal operators, and providing fair and effective regulation throughout the life of the project. The experience that Nigeria has had in the development of its port infrastructure and management provides examples for policymakers on actions that have led to success and challenges that arise when a country opens its ports to foreign investors.

Being part of UNCTAD's Investment Advisory Series B this is a case study of good practices in policy and strategic matters related to foreign investment and development in ports. It is intended to help policy makers with issues related to investment promotion and facilitation and the work of investment promotion agencies and similar institutions.

While it was prepared by PortEconomics co-director Thanos Pallis and Aimilia Papachristou, valuable guidance and local insights were provided by Stanley Yitnoe. The report was finalized by Cam Vidler and Silvia Constain. Contributions and comments were received from Chantal Dupasquier, Jan Hoffmann, Vincent Valentine, and Joerg Weber. The report has also benefited from views of current and former Government officials, the domestic and foreign private sector and academics. The programme receives financial support from the Government of Germany.

You can freely download the study @ UNCTAD's webpage: "How to utilize FDI to improve transport infrastructure - ports: Lessons from Nigeria"
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The PortEconomics Initiative

PortEconomics is a web-based initiative aiming to advance knowledge exchange on seaport studies. Established by maritime economists affiliated to academic institutions in Belgium, Greece and the Netherlands. It provides freely accessible research, education, information, and network-building material on critical issues of port economics, management and policies. The main objectives of PortEconomics are: (a) to develop and promote resources for increased quality port studies; (b) to disseminate the activities and cutting-edge port research and analysis conducted by the group members and associates; and (c) to foster a knowledge exchange network of scholars, policy-makers, practitioners and students interested in port studies.

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