While much research in the field of transport is focused on the role of port as transport nodes, ports generally develop into more diverse economic complexes and attract manufacturing, logistics and leisure activities. Research taking this into account has conceptualized the port as a cluster and subsequently as a localized ‘business ecosystem’.
The port business ecosystem often includes energy production, chemical and metal industries and vast amounts of warehousing space. Port business ecosystems face huge transition challenges in light of emerging transitions, amongst others towards sustainable energy, circular economy (CE), a model of production and consumption which involves sharing, reusing, repairing and recycling materials to reduce waste production to a minimum.
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